Turkey

Turkey regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. Turkey's Criminal Code contains a specific penalty enhancement provision. Data are collected by the Interior Ministry and the Ministry of Justice, and are not made publicly available.

SELECT YEAR

Official Data

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced About these data
2019 79 248 319
2018 - 1983 589
2017 13 1967 500
2016 14 1455 290
2015 Not available 810 272

Hate crimes recorded by police

The breakdown below consists of police records related to the offences of "Prevention of the Exercise of Freedom of Belief, Thought and Conviction", and "Damaging Places of Worship and Cemeteries" (Articles 115 and 153 of Turkey’s Criminal Code). The offences of "Hatred and Discrimination", "Recording of Personal Data", and "Provoking the Public to Hatred, Hostility or Degrading the Public" (Articles 122, 135 and 216 of the Criminal Code of Turkey) were not included since they fall outside of the OSCE's definition of hate crime.

National developments

Turkey continued implementing ODIHR's Training against Hate Crime for Law Enforcement (TAHCLE) programme, following a memorandum of understanding signed in 2016. Several thousand police officers have been trained on hate crimes since then. In 2019, the Turkish National Police co-operated with the Police Academy to deliver the training programme to 603 police officers.

In the framework of the Judicial Reform Strategy, launched on 30 May 2019, a working group examined international reports and recommendations by UN Human Rights Mechanisms and the OSCE, as well as good practices from other countries. The working group prepared a document aimed at harmonizing provisions on hate crime with international standards and creating a database of hate crime statistics. Several state authorities and civil society organizations were involved in the process. During a meeting held in December 2019, the working group underscored the need to strengthen efforts to raise awareness of hate crimes. It was also emphasized that a holistic approach should be made to combat hate crimes, and that the upcoming Human Rights Action Plan should include new reforms and regulations regarding hate crimes.

Key observation

ODIHR observes that Turkey's law enforcement agencies have not recorded the bias motivations of hate crimes.