United Kingdom

The United Kingdom regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. The United Kingdom's hate crime laws are a combination of general penalty enhancement provisions and substantive offences. In England and Wales, hate crime data are collected and published by the Home Office, based on police data submissions. Prosecution data is collected and published by the Crown Prosecution Service. The Crime Survey of England and Wales includes regular victimization surveys to measure unreported hate crimes. In Northern Ireland, hate crime data are collected by the Police Service of Northern Ireland and the Public Prosecution Service for Northern Ireland. In Scotland, data are collected by the Procurator Fiscal and Police Scotland. . Police and prosecution data, which cover the reporting period from April to March of the following year, are regularly published.

SELECT YEAR

Official Data

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced About these data
2019 106672 14058 9340
2018 111076 18055 10817
2017 95552 14535 11987
2016 80,763 20,321 Not available
2015 62518 21300 13103

Hate crimes recorded by police

The disaggregated data below are for England and Wales only. The Police and several civil society organizations involved in monitoring hate incidents (including the Community Security Trust, Galop and Tell MAMA) exchange data on a regular basis about recorded incidents. This data sharing is governed by Information Sharing Agreements signed by the Police and each of the civil society organizations. As a result, some of the information presented below (particularly data on anti-Semitic hate crime and hate crime motivated by intolerance against Muslims) is also included in reporting by the abovementioned civil society organizations elsewhere on this page.

National developments

A consultation was launched by the College of Policing to update the Hate Crime Operational Guidance on police hate crime recording.

In April 2020, the Hate Crime and Public Order (Scotland) Bill was introduced to the Scottish Parliament and aims to (i) update the existing laws, (ii) combine most of the relevant laws into one Bill and (iii) add to the list of groups currently protected by hate crime laws.

Key observation

ODIHR observes that the United Kingdom has met most OSCE commitments on hate crime data collection and reporting.