Poland regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. Several public bodies are involved in monitoring and/or collecting data on hate crimes, primarily the police and the Prosecutor's Office. Hate crime data are regularly published.
There is a high degree of hate crime specialization in both police and prosecutor structures. More than 100 specialist hate crime prosecutors have been appointed, and a network of hate crime co-ordinators was established in the police in 2014. In 2015, following a request by the lower house of parliament, ODIHR provided a legislative review of proposed changes to the Criminal Code of Poland, including on hate crime provisions.
Poland has implemented ODIHR's Training Against Hate Crime for Law Enforcement (TAHCLE) programme since 2012. In 2018, the Ministry of the Interior, ODIHR and the EU Fundamental Rights Agency co-organized a workshop on understanding and improving hate crime recording and data collection based on ODIHR's Information Against Hate Crimes Toolkit (INFAHCT) programme. Poland also developed and piloted a methodology for conducting victimization surveys as part of ODIHR's project on "Building a Comprehensive Criminal Justice Response to Hate Crime". In 2019, ODIHR co-operated with the Commissioner for Human Rights in Poland to issue a report on the nature and scale of unreported hate crimes against members of selected communities in Poland.
|Year||Hate crimes recorded by police||Prosecuted||Sentenced|
About 2014 Data
Two sets of data are reported to ODIHR: the overall number of hate crimes is provided by the police and disaggregated by type of crime, but not by bias motivation (presented in the “unspecified” bias motivation section below). The Ministry of the Interior reports a number of hate crimes disaggregated by bias motivation, but not by type of crime. Most of the cases recorded by the Ministry of the Interior are included in the overall figure (although due to technical limitations, these are also displayed separately below). Reported data include crimes of incitement to hatred and discrimination cases.
Hate crime recorded by police
ODIHR observes that Poland has not reported on hate crimes separately from cases of hate speech.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported several initiatives in Poland related to hate crime. The Polish police created a Police Platform against Hatred, which includes Police Human Rights Plenipotentiaries from all regions, representatives from the ombudsperson’s office, UNHCR, civil society groups and the Plenipotentiary for Equal Treatment from the Ministry of Interior. The platform holds quarterly meetings to discuss current challenges related to hate crime and ways to address them.
UNHCR also reported that the Ministry of the Interior published a report on the state of combatting racism and xenophobia in Białystok, the Afryka Connect Foundation organized regular meetings on hate crime and intolerance involving migrants, and the municipality of Białystok organized the "Tolerance is OK" open conference.
The UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) recommended changes to the Polish criminal code, specifically making the racial motivation of a crime an aggravating circumstance and allowing for enhanced punishment to combat the occurrence of such acts. It also noted its concern that victims may not be willing to report incidents through official channels, recommending as a result that Poland continue its training programmes for police officers, prosecutors and judges.
It its fifth report on Poland, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) commended the guidance on prosecuting hate crimes issued by the Prosecutor General and encouraged its effective implementation. ECRI also recommended that Polish authorities improve their system for collecting hate crime data.