National frameworks to address hate crime in Turkey

This page provides information on the national frameworks to address hate crime in Turkey. The information provided here should be viewed alongside data presented on Turkey's hate crime report page.

Hate crime recording and data collection

When a crime is reported, a criminal record is opened. Crimes that contain a bias element are recorded in the same way as other crimes, and there is no specific procedure for recording or investigating hate crimes. 

Offences are recorded electronically within the UYAP system (National Judicial Network System). As part of the Official Statistics Programme, data from the UYAP system are compiled annually and include information on the accused and the offence, as provided for in the Criminal Code and special laws. The Directorate General for Criminal Records and Statistics of the Ministry of Justice (Directorate) stores hate crime statistics in keeping with the relevant articles of the Criminal Code. 

A working group within the Directorate is tasked with collecting statistics in an accurate and appropriate manner, and making other necessary changes in hate crime data collection.  

Hate crime victim support

The Department of Judicial Support and Victim Service under the Ministry of Justice contributes to an accessible support system for victims – in particular vulnerable groups – by conducting studies related to victims' rights. The Department of Judicial Support and Victim Service remains in contact with the bar association, which can in certain cases appoint a victim's lawyer, and civil society organizations (CSOs). In addition, Directorates of Judicial Support and Victim Services are present in courthouses, and serve to inform victims of their rights. CSO representatives may be invited to the meetings of the Directorates' Advisory Board and Coordination Board in order to make recommendations regarding the provision of victim support services.

The Directorates of Judicial Support and Victim Services also include a Vulnerable Group Support Agency, which provides individual needs assessment, judicial support plans, and a case management and monitoring programme. Judicial support plans are prepared based on individual needs assessments, and include measures to ensure that judicial support personnel can actively plan, implement, monitor and co-ordinate the provision of services to vulnerable victims. There are also protection boards responsible for helping crime victims solve their social and financial problems. Support services may be also provided by CSOs, the Ministry of Family and Social Policies, and municipal authorities.

Police inform victims of their rights and available support services upon their request. The principles of sensitive and respectful treatment are described in a dedicated Guide on Approach to Victims. Victims may be supported either by the staff of Directorates or be referred to victim support providers. Special interviewing premises are provided to particularly vulnerable victims, including victims of hate crime. Interviews on these premises can be held with the assistance of psychological support specialists.

Victims are entitled to participate in the criminal proceedings held before a court of first instance. Victims can seek compensation. The judge may award compensation upon request, or designate an alternative form of redress. Hate crime victims can also lodge petitions to the National Ombudsman and Human Rights and Equality Institution of Turkey.

The Ministry of Justice has published a dedicated "Victim Information" website. The website informs crime victims of their rights, the services they can access, and information about service providers and relevant procedures.

Hate crime capacity building

Türkiye implemented ODIHR's Training against Hate Crime for Law Enforcement (TAHCLE) programme following a memorandum of understanding signed in 2016 between the Presidency of the Police Academy and ODIHR. Following a training-of-trainers held in April 2016, a cascading plan for 2018-2023 was adopted with the aim of reaching all police officers working at the central and provincial levels. Elements of the TAHCLE curriculum were also introduced to the pre-service police training course curriculum, as well as to the "Police-Chief Practices" course for students receiving the First-Level Police Chief Training at the Directorate of Police Chiefs Training Centre.