National frameworks to address hate crime in the Russian Federation
This page provides information on the national frameworks to address hate crime in the Russian Federation. The information provided here should be viewed alongside data presented on the Russian Federation's hate crime report page.
Hate crime recording and data collection
The registration of acts motivated by extremism is carried out by law enforcement agencies according to the general rules for registering all crimes. Information is entered onto statistical cards used for registering crimes by the information centres of departments of internal affairs in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The Chief Information Analytical Centre of the Ministry of Internal Affairs is responsible for then collecting and revising the statistical information submitted by the information centres.
The statistical cards include a file for motives. Possible motives include: hostility, hate and reprisals on the basis of "race", nationality, religion, ideology, and political or social affiliation. Basic information about such offences is recorded using statistical forms (on the identification of a perpetrator and the results of an investigation) according to the data provided on the card and based on the list of extremist crimes. Data on extremism offences can be found on the criminal statistics website of the Office of the General Prosecutor. However, the information collected on such offences does not include bias motivations, and they are not reported to ODIHR as potential hate crimes.
Prosecuting authorities do not register crimes. Prosecutors, as mandated by the Criminal Procedure Code of the Russian Federation, ensure adherence to the rule of law during the detection, investigation or prosecution of a criminal offence, including for the categories of crime mentioned above. Based on an order of the Prosecutor General, an analysis of legislation regulating interethnic relations and countering extremism is carried out every six months, which includes the study of motivations behind extremist crimes.
Hate crime victim support
The Russian Federation does not have a developed victim support system. According to the Constitution, the rights of crime victims are protected by law, and the state ensures that victims have access to justice and are compensated for damage caused.
Existing victim support services are provided by civil society organizations (CSOs), which rely on private and international funding. Some municipalities have co-operation agreements with CSOs that allow them to refer victims to seek assistance. However, there is no national system of referrals.
Victims of crime can claim compensation from either the perpetrator or the insurance company.
The following protection measures are provided for by law (the Act on State protection of victims, witnesses and other participants in criminal proceedings): personal protection; protection of residence and property; provision of special means for individual protection; communication and information regarding dangers; confidentiality of personal details; relocation to a different place of residence; replacement of documents; change of appearance; change of place of employment or study; and temporary accommodation at a secure location.