National frameworks to address hate crime in North Macedonia

This page provides information on the national frameworks to address hate crime in North Macedonia. The information provided here should be viewed alongside data presented on North Macedonia's hate crime report page.

Hate crime recording and data collection

Police officers record relevant information when preparing their reports in a section titled "Indications that a hate crime has been committed". This section includes indicators that the incident was a hate crime, while also stating the relevant characteristics of the victim singled out by the perpetrator.

These characteristics include: sex, "race", skin colour, gender, belonging to a marginalized group, ethnic affiliation, language, nationality, social origin, religion or religious conviction, other types of conviction, education, political affiliation, personal or social status, mental or physical disability, age, family or marital status, property status, health status, or any other grounds set forth under law or international treaties.

Data about criminal charges filed under the relevant articles are entered in the electronic data system of the Ministry of the Interior. The Ministry's Unit for Criminal Intelligence and Analysis keeps national police records.

Hate crime victim support

There is no developed victim support system in North Macedonia to address the needs of hate crime victims.

According to the Law on Criminal procedure, a victim of any crime has the right to effective psychological and other professional support from the authorities, institutions and organizations that offer help to crime victim. Some specialized hate crime victim support is provided by civil society organizations.  

Victims of crimes for which a sentence of at least four years was given have the right to free legal consultation prior to providing testimony, and to receive compensation for non-material damages from the perpetrator or state. Some victims – including minors, endangered victims and especially vulnerable victims – have the right to special protection measures when giving statements or being interviewed at all stages of the proceedings. Victims of certain crimes ("against gender freedom and gender morality, humanity and international law") have additional rights, including: the right to speak to a counsellor or a proxy free of charge before an interview (in case the victim is participating as an injured party in the proceedings); the right to be interviewed by a person of the same gender; the right to refuse to answer questions about the victim's personal life, if unrelated to the crime; the right to be interviewed using audio-visual equipment; and the right to request the public's exclusion from the main hearing. Special measures of procedural protection are determined by the court following the proposal of the public prosecutor or the victim or on their own assessment when it is necessary to protect vulnerable victims.

The Law on Criminal Procedure also regulates the issues related to interviewing of particularly vulnerable victims and witnesses with special attention, and if necessary in presence of a trusted person, with the help of a psychologist, social worker or other expert, using the technical means/tools for image and sound transmission, without the presence of the parties and other participants in the procedure, in the room where the injured party or witness is located, so that the parties, the defense attorney and the persons who have the right to ask them questions, do so through the authority leading the procedure, or via a psychologist, a pedagogue, a social worker or other expert. During the examination of the victim or the witness, the court may exclude the public. The victim or the witness may not face the accused, and can face the other witnesses only at their request.

Victims of all crimes have the right to participate in criminal proceedings as injured parties by joining the criminal prosecution or for the purpose of claiming damages. In case compensation cannot be paid by the perpetrator, it is covered by the state.