Hate crime targeting individuals on the basis of religion can take various forms. The extent and nature of attacks motivated by bias against a particular religion are influenced by a number of factors, including the minority or majority status of that religion in a given territory. Successive ODIHR hate crime reports have indicated that graffiti and vandalism against places of worship, the desecration of cemeteries and arson attacks against churches are some of the more common types of crimes motivated by bias against Christians and members of other religions.
States that report
Incidents were reported on these states
The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe expressed concern about violent attacks against religious communities and individuals. The Assembly urged states to condemn, combat and bring to justice cases of violence committed against individuals owing to their religion or beliefs.
At its session dealing with the rights of religious minorities, the United Nations Human Rights Council’s Forum on Minority Issues recommended that states provide for the proper documentation and prosecution of cases of intimidation, attacks or communal violence against members of religious minorities.
The United Nations Human Rights Council adopted Resolution 22/31 on combating intolerance, negative stereotyping and stigmatization of, and discrimination, incitement to violence, and violence against persons based on religion or belief.
The United Nations Human Rights Council adopted Resolution 22/20 on freedom of religion or belief, which condemns acts of violence based on religion or belief and urges states to diligently prevent, investigate and punish such acts.
In his report, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief advocated the implementation by the states of the Rabat Plan of Action on the prohibition of advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence.
In its Decision No. 3/13 on “Freedom of Thought, Conscience, Religion or Belief”, the OSCE Ministerial Council called on participating States to prevent intolerance, violence and discrimination on the basis of religion or belief, including against Christians, Jews, Muslims and members of other religions, as well as against non-believers; condemn violence and discrimination on religious grounds; prevent and protect against attacks directed at persons or groups based on thought, conscience, religion or belief; and protect religious sites from vandalism and destruction.