France

France regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. France’s hate crime laws are a combination of general and specific penalty-enhancement provisions. Hate crime data are collected by the Ministry of Justice, the National Institution for Human Rights, police and the Gendarmerie. Hate crime data are regularly published by the National Institution for Human Rights.

Legislation | TANDIS

SELECT YEAR

Official country information

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced
2014 1662 Not available 554
2013   1765 579 Not available
2012   2357 604 550
2011   Not available Not available 431
2010 2 Not available 562
2009   Not available Not available 579
Bias motivationType of crimeRecorded by police
Racism and xenophobiaPhysical assault101
Threats/ threatening behaviour577
Anti-SemitismPhysical assault241
Threats/ threatening behaviour610
Bias against MuslimsPhysical assault55
Threats/ threatening behaviour78

Hate crimes recorded by police by bias motivation

Official data recorded 678 racist hate crimes, including 101 of violent nature, and 577 of threatening character.

As divided by type of crime:

Official data recorded 851 anti-Semitic hate crimes, including 241 of violent nature, and 610 of threatening character.

As divided by type of crime:

Official data recorded 133 anti-Muslim hate crimes, including 55 of violent nature, and 78 of threatening character.

As divided by type of crime:

Hate crimes recorded by police by type of crime

The category “physical assault” consists of physical attacks on persons, violent attacks against property, including arson, cases of harassment and other violence.

As divided by bias motivation:

The category “threats and threatening behaviour” consists of verbal insults, remarks or threatening gestures, graffiti or intimidating demonstrations.

As divided by bias motivation:

National developments

A new "Action Plan Against Racism and Anti-Semitism" was presented by the Prime Minister and will be implemented between 2015 and 2017 by the Interministerial Delegation for Combatting Racism and Anti-Semitism (DILCRA). Among other measures, the Action Plan includes: conducting hate crime victimisation surveys to reveal the scale of unreported hate crime; increasing the visibility of criminal justice system action against hate crimes by publishing the lists of sentences disaggregated by type of recorded bias; making bias an aggravating factor for all types of offences; and providing specialized assistance to victims of hate crimes.

The Public Defender of Rights has launched a website which includes information for the victims of racism, discrimination and hate crimes at: www.egalitecontreracisme.fr.

Civil society information

Overview of incidents reported by civil society

Bias Motivation Attacks Against People Attacks Against Property
Violent Attacks Threats
Racism and xenophobia023
Bias against Roma and Sinti100
Anti-Semitism12215453
Bias against Muslims7310
Bias against Christians and members of other religions18884
Total14828550
Grand Total726

Reports

Racism and xenophobia
  • Racism Islamophobia Watch reported one case of racist threats, in which letters were sent specifically to people of North African descent; a burglary that also involved racist graffiti and property damage against a Muslim funeral home; and two cases of graffiti.

  • Jehovah's Witnesses – France reported one incident, in which two men and a child were threatened with a firearm. Racial slurs were involved.

Bias against Roma and Sinti
  • The European Roma Information Office (ERIO) reported one physical assault against a Roma boy, carried out by a group, during which he was stuffed into a supermarket trolley and left on the side of the road.

Anti-Semitism
  • The Kantor Center reported one incident of graffiti.

    World Without Nazism reported 13 physical assaults, including two carried out by groups and one in which an axe was used. Three arson attacks, 24 incidents of graffiti and four incidents of damage to property, including one in which explosives were thrown at a synagogue, were reported.

  • The Jewish Community Protection Service (SPCJ) reported 107 cases of physical violence, of which at least nine were carried out by a group, and at least 15 caused serious injuries, and one incident in which bullets were fired, hitting a worshipper in a synagogue. Many incidents involved spitting, pushing and slapping, and many victims were wearing Jewish symbols.

    The SPCJ and the Kantor Center reported one physical assault carried out by a group during which a woman was sexually assaulted, one incident of threats carried out by a group, and one arson attack. 

    The SPCJ reported a further four arson attacks; 126 incidents of vandalism, many of which were connected with anti-Israel demonstrations during the conflict in Gaza; 289 incidents of graffiti, many of which involved swastikas being painted on synagogues; one bias-motivated robbery; one incident of the desecration of a grave; and 14 threats.

Bias against Muslims
  • World Without Nazism reported one incident of the desecration of and one of vandalism against a mosque.

  • Racism Islamophobia Watch reported an arson attack on a mosque; a case of graffiti on a mosque, and a further case of the desecration of a place of worship, in which pork sausages were left on the site of a future mosque; and one case of threats, in which threatening letters were specifically sent to people perceived to be Muslim. Racism Islamophobia Watch and the Collective against Islamophobia in France (CCIF) reported a burglary that also involved racist graffiti and property damage against a Muslim funeral home.

    The CCIF also reported seven incidents of physical assault, six of which targeted women who had their headscarves removed. Of these six incidents, one involved sexual assault and two targeted pregnant women. The CCIF also recorded two incidents of threats against women and their children, an arson attack on a mosque, two incidents of the desecration of mosques in which the perpetrators used pigs' parts and one incident of graffiti.

Bias against Christians and members of other religions
  • World Without Nazism reported three arson attacks, four incidents of damage to property, the desecration of one cemetery and four incidents of the desecration of a place of worship.

  • The Observatory on Intolerance and Discrimination against Christians reported four incidents of arson; three incidents of theft in churches, all of which involved vandalism; ten incidents of vandalism, and; eight incidents of damage to property. The Observatory also reported six incidents of the desecration of places of worship, four of which took place in churches and involved the desecration of communion bread, and one denial of service attack on a Catholic website.

  • Jehovah's Witnesses – France reported one incident of sexual assault on a woman, 17 incidents of physical assaults, including two in which religious materials were damaged, eight incidents of threats, including three that involved firearms, 16 incidents of damage to property and 24 incidents of vandalism, including three incidents in which excrement was used.

IGO information

Developments

Racism and xenophobia, Anti-Semitism, Bias against Muslims, Bias against LGBT people
  • In his country visit report, the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe expressed concern at rising racist, anti-Semitic, anti-Muslim and homophobic rhetoric and acts. He stressed that the existing, solid legal framework needs to be complemented by more preventive and awareness-raising measures.

Holy See information

  • The Holy See reported one incident of physical assault that involved the use of a firearm; three arson attacks on churches, one of which was also reported by the Observatory on Intolerance and Discrimination against Christians in Europe (OIDC); nine incidents of vandalism, including three that were also reported by the OIDC; six incidents of graffiti on buildings belonging to the Catholic Church, four of which were also reported by the OIDC; four thefts, including one reported by the OIDC, and five burglaries involving the desecration of communion bread, of which the OIDC reported one; one damage to property case; and four cases of grave desecration.

ODIHR key observations

ODIHR observes that France has met most OSCE commitments on hate crime data collection and reporting. ODIHR further observes that data on certain OSCE-mandated bias motivations have not been reported.