France

France regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. France’s hate crime laws are a combination of general and specific penalty-enhancement provisions. Hate crime data are collected by the Ministry of Justice, the National Institution for Human Rights, police and the Gendarmerie. Hate crime data are regularly published by the National Institution for Human Rights.

Legislation | TANDIS

SELECT YEAR

Official country information

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced
2015   1790 Not available Not available
2014 1662 Not available 554
2013   1765 579 Not available
2012   2357 604 550
2011   Not available Not available 431
2010 2 Not available 562
2009   Not available Not available 579
Bias motivationType of crimeRecorded by police
Racism and xenophobiaPhysical assault69
Damage to property31
Arson3
Vandalism387
Threats/ threatening behaviour249
Anti-SemitismHomicide31
Physical assault66
Damage to property109
Vandalism250
Threats/ threatening behaviour259
Bias against MuslimsPhysical assault29
Damage to property74
Arson18
Vandalism175
Threats/ threatening behaviour40

Hate crimes recorded by police by bias motivation

Official figures recorded 739 racist hate crimes, including 69 physical assaults, three arson attacks, 31 incidents of damage to property and 249 cases of threats.

These data exclude information provided by France on cases of discrimination, defamation and public insults (58 incidents).

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 715 anti-Semitic hate crimes, including 31 homicides, 66 physical assaults, 109 cases of damage to property, 250 incidents of vandalism and 259 cases of threats.

These data exclude information provided by France on cases of discrimination, defamation and public insults (93 incidents).

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 336 hate crimes motivated by anti-Muslim bias, including 29 physical assaults, 18 arson attacks, 74 cases of damage to property, 175 incidents of vandalism and 40 cases of threat.

These data exclude information provided by France on cases of discrimination, defamation and public insults (93 incidents).

As divided by type of crime:

Hate crimes recorded by police by type of crime

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

National developments

In the framework of the "Action Plan against Racism and Anti-Semitism 2015-2017," a circular was published on 4 December 2015. This circular instructed prosecutors to request sentences that include an educational component as part of perpetrator's sentences.

Civil society information

Overview of incidents reported by civil society

Bias Motivation Attacks Against People Attacks Against Property
Violent Attacks Threats
Racism and xenophobia1537
Anti-Semitism9010371
Bias against Muslims49867
Bias against Christians and members of other religions81107
Total16222552
Grand Total736

Reports

Racism and xenophobia
  • LICRA reported 14 physical assaults, including one perpetrated by a group and one that involved the use a knife; two threats; two incidents of damage to property; one theft and three cases of vandalism. The European Centre for Democracy Development reported one physical assault. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) reported one threat.

  • The Observatory of Christianophobia (OC) and the Holy See reported one incident of vandalism on a memorial to the victims of atrocities in Armenia.

Anti-Semitism
  • The European Centre for Democracy Development, the Jewish Community Protection Service (SPCJ), the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) and the Kantor Centre reported one incident in which four people were murdered and 25 held hostage in a kosher supermarket. The SPCJ and the ADL reported one physical assault, in which a man was stabbed.

  • The SPCJ also reported 66 physical assaults and 359 cases of vandalism, including 250 incidents of graffiti and 259 threats. LICRA reported 10 physical assaults, including one resulting in a miscarriage; one sexual assault; one attempted physical assault; eight threats; two incidents of burglary and four incidents of vandalism.

  • The ADL also reported an incident in which 14 people were poisoned after a synagogue’s lock was covered with poison; eight physical assaults, including two committed during a robbery; two threats; one case of vandalism; and one incident of damage to property targeting a Jewish library. 

  • The European Centre for Democracy Development reported one physical assault perpetrated with a knife, one incident of the desecration of a grave and two incidents of vandalism. The ADL and Kantor Centre reported an incident of the desecration of graves.

Bias against Muslims
  • The Association against Islamophobia in France (CCIF) and the Organization Racism Islamophobia Watch (ORIW) reported one murder, one physical assault, three arson attacks, one incident of vandalism, three cases of damage to property and one case of the desecration of graves. The CCIF and ENAR reported three additional physical assaults.

    The CCIF also reported 33 physical assaults, three attempted physical assaults, five arson attacks, two attempted arson attacks, 26 incidents of vandalism, six cases of damage to property, four threats and ten incidents of the desecration of graves.

  • LICRA reported one attempted murder, four physical assaults, one threat, one incident of damage to property and one case of vandalism. The ORIW also reported three physical assaults, three threats, one incident of damage to property, four cases of vandalism, two arson attacks and one attempted arson attack.

Bias against Christians and members of other religions
  • Jehovah’s Witnesses – France reported four physical assaults; four incidents of damage to property against places of worship; 12 incidents vandalism, including nine with graffiti; two incidents of the desecration of graves; and one threat.

  • The Observatory of Christianophobia (OC) reported one physical assault and 29 thefts, nine of which were also reported by the Observatory on Intolerance and Discrimination against Christians in Europe (OIDC). The OC further reported one robbery and one attempted robbery; nine incidents of damage to property; one attempted arson attack; 22 cases of vandalism, of which two were also reported on by the OIDC; nine desecrations and 12 cases of hacking targeting the websites of dioceses, parishes and catholic associations, one of which also reported on by the OIDC.

  • The OIDC reported a physical attack on Christian refugees, which was carried out by a group using a knife and resulted in the death of a victim; two thefts; four incidents of vandalism; and the desecration of a grave.

IGO information

Reports

Racism and xenophobia
  • The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported 20 physical assaults, including ten perpetrated with metallic bars and nine with tear gas. Victims were identified as migrants or refugees.

Bias against Muslims
  • The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported two cases of damage to property against Mosques.

Developments

Racism and xenophobia, Bias against Roma and Sinti, Bias against LGBT people, Bias against people with disabilities and other groups
  • In its fifth report on France, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) recommended amendments to the Criminal Code to include racist, homophobic and transphobic motivations as aggravating circumstances in criminal offences. ECRI also recommended that the authorities establish partnerships with civil society organizations working with Roma communities and people with disabilities to overcome under-reporting and to ensure that hate crime data-collection systems allow the disaggregation of data and the tracking of cases through the criminal justice system.

Holy See information

  • The Holy See reported one incident of physical assault, which was also reported by the Observatory of Christianophobia (OC). The Holy See also reported 22 incidents of vandalism, including 21 reported by the OC and eight reported by the Observatory on Intolerance and Discrimination against Christians in Europe (OIDC); seven incidents of graffiti, six of which were also reported by the OC and two also reported by the OIDC.

    The Holy See reported an additional 27 thefts, 21 of which were reported by the OC and five reported by the OIDC; five incidents of the desecration of churches, of which the OC reported on four and the OIDC one; 30 incidents of the desecration of graves, including five reported by the OIDC; two incidents of damage to property; 15 incidents of actual or attempted arson, of which the OC reported 14 and the OIDC six; one threat; and four incidents of hacking.

ODIHR key observations

ODIHR observes that France has met most OSCE commitments on hate crime data collection and reporting. ODIHR further observes that data on certain OSCE-mandated bias motivations have not been reported.