United States of America

The United States regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. Its hate crime laws contain general penalty-enhancement provisions and substantive offences. The United States Hate Crime Statistics Act requires the collection and publication of hate crime data. Authorities responsible for data collection are the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Hate crime data are published annually.

SELECT YEAR

Official country information

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced About these data
2015 6885 Not available Not available
2014 6385 Not available Not available
2013 6933 22 Not available
2012 6718 Not available Not available
2011 7254 Not available Not available
Bias motivationType of crimeRecorded by policeProsecutedSentenced
Racism and xenophobiaHomicide1100
Physical assault152900
Damage to property80900
Theft/ robbery30800
Arson1400
Threats/ threatening behaviour152800
Unspecified10000
Anti-SemitismPhysical assault10000
Damage to property44700
Theft/ robbery000
Arson400
Threats/ threatening behaviour11400
Unspecified300
Bias against MuslimsHomicide400
Physical assault9100
Damage to property7000
Theft/ robbery1200
Arson100
Threats/ threatening behaviour12000
Unspecified300
Bias against Christians and members of other religionsPhysical assault6600
Damage to property16100
Theft/ robbery6500
Arson700
Threats/ threatening behaviour4600
Unspecified1300
Bias based on sexual orientation and gender identityHomicide200
Physical assault73900
Damage to property18300
Theft/ robbery11600
Arson300
Threats/ threatening behaviour27200
Unspecified2200
Bias against people with disabilities and other groupsPhysical assault3800
Damage to property1400
Threats/ threatening behaviour1600
Unspecified1000
UnspecifiedPhysical assault1600
Damage to property200
Theft/ robbery300
Threats/ threatening behaviour800

Hate crimes recorded by police by bias motivation

Official figures recorded 4,029 racist and xenophobic offences.

This category includes hate crimes committed on the grounds of race, ethnicity and ancestry.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 695 anti-Semitic hate crimes.

Anti-Semitic hate crimes were originally reported under the category of anti-religious hate crimes.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 301 hate crimes motivated by bias against Muslims..

Anti-Muslim hate crimes were originally reported under the category of anti-religious hate crimes.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 174 hate crimes against Christians and 184 other anti-religious offences.

Anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim hate crimes were originally also reported under this category and are presented separately.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 1,219 hate crimes based on sexual orientation, including 23 anti-heterosexual, and 118 hate crimes based on gender identity.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 88 hate crimes against people with disabilities.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 29 gender-based hate crimes.

As divided by type of crime:

Hate crimes recorded by police by type of crime

This category includes murders and non-negligent manslaughter.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category includes rape, aggravated and simple assaults.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category consists of cases of destruction, damage and vandalism.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category includes cases of theft, robbery, burglary and motor vehicle theft.

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

This category consists of cases of intimidation.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category includes crimes against society and other types.

As divided by bias motivation:

National developments

The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) approved the collection of hate crime data based on bias against Arabs. Law enforcement agencies began reporting on the following additional religious bias types: anti-Buddhist, anti-Eastern Orthodox (such as Greek, Ukrainian or Russian orthodox churches), anti-Hindu, anti-Jehovah’s Witness, anti-Mormon, bias against other Christian groups, and anti-Sikh. Furthermore, the Hate Crime Statistics Program began collecting race and ethnicity bias types under the combined category Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry, which includes the added type of bias against Arabs.

The Federal Webinars on Church Security were launched in early 2015: the initiative promotes inter-agency collaboration and addresses both prevention and effective responses to hate crimes. The initiative includes representatives from the Department of Justice, the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Education. Government representatives also met with civil society representatives. As a response to the vulnerability felt by African American churches and other churches and places of worship in the wake of the Charleston shootings, the webinar addressed a range of issues for ensuring the security of places of worship, including developing emergency operations plans, advance security measures, services offered by the DHS, training materials for staff and other resources.

Civil society information

Overview of incidents reported by civil society

Bias Motivation Attacks Against People Attacks Against Property
Violent Attacks Threats
Racism and xenophobia907
Anti-Semitism640409
Bias against Muslims181249
Bias against Christians and members of other religions0041
Total9112506
Grand Total609

Reports

Racism and xenophobia

  • The Bridge Initiative reported the murder of an Iranian-American man and eight physical assaults, including two that caused serious injuries and one that involved the use of a weapon. The victims of these assaults included Sikhs, people speaking languages other than English in public, and people of Asian and Middle Eastern background. The Bridge Initiative also reported three incidents of vandalism and two incidents of graffiti targeting foreigners.
    read more ›

Anti-Semitism

  • The Ephesus Initiative and the Kantor Center reported a robbery. The Ephesus Initiative  further reported six physical assaults targeting men visibly identifiable as Jewish; a robbery; two arson attacks one against a synagogue and another against several houses, two incidents of damage to property; the desecration of a grave; and 27 incidents of vandalism, most of which involved graffiti targeting synagogues or Jewish property.
    read more ›

Bias against Muslims

  • The Ephesus Initiative, the Bridge Initiative and the ORIW reported the attempted murder of a Muslim taxi driver. The Ephesus Initiative and the Bridge Initiative also reported a physical assault that caused serious injury to a Muslim woman wearing a headscarf. The Ephesus Initiative further reported three incidents of threats, five arson attacks, eight cases of vandalism against mosques, and three incidents of the desecration of mosques. The ORIW also reported an additional physical assault against a group of Muslim men praying in a park. 
    read more ›

Bias against Christians and members of other religions

  • The Ephesus Initiative reported four arson attacks; eight incidents of damage to property; 24 incidents of vandalism, most of which involved graffiti; and five incidents of the desecration of graves.
    read more ›

IGO information

Racism and xenophobia

  • Following its Universal Periodic Review (UPR), the United States authorities made the commitment to examine and respond to recommendations to continue to work towards ensuring that all hate crimes are effectively investigated and prosecuted, and to engage better with communities at risk of being victims of hate crimes.

Key observation

ODIHR observes that the United States has not reported information on sentenced hate crime cases to ODIHR.