United States of America

The United States regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. Its hate crime laws contain general penalty-enhancement provisions and substantive offences. The United States Hate Crime Statistics Act requires the collection and publication of hate crime data. Authorities responsible for data collection are the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Hate crime data are published annually.

Legislation | TANDIS

SELECT YEAR

Official country information

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced
2015   6885 Not available Not available
2014   6385 Not available Not available
2013   6933 22 Not available
2012   6718 Not available Not available
2011   7254 Not available Not available
2010   7699 Not available Not available
2009   7789 Not available Not available
Bias motivationType of crimeRecorded by police
Racism and xenophobiaHomicide11
Physical assault1529
Damage to property809
Theft/ robbery308
Arson14
Threats/ threatening behaviour1528
Unspecified100
Anti-SemitismPhysical assault100
Damage to property447
Theft/ robbery0
Arson4
Threats/ threatening behaviour114
Unspecified3
Bias against MuslimsHomicide4
Physical assault91
Damage to property70
Theft/ robbery12
Arson1
Threats/ threatening behaviour120
Unspecified3
Bias against Christians and members of other religionsPhysical assault66
Damage to property161
Theft/ robbery65
Arson7
Threats/ threatening behaviour46
Unspecified13
Bias against LGBT peopleHomicide2
Physical assault739
Damage to property183
Theft/ robbery116
Arson3
Threats/ threatening behaviour272
Unspecified22
Bias against people with disabilities and other groupsPhysical assault38
Damage to property14
Threats/ threatening behaviour16
Unspecified10
UnspecifiedPhysical assault16
Damage to property2
Theft/ robbery3
Threats/ threatening behaviour8

Hate crimes recorded by police by bias motivation

Official figures recorded 4,029 racist and xenophobic offences.

This category includes hate crimes committed on the grounds of race, ethnicity and ancestry.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 695 anti-Semitic hate crimes.

Anti-Semitic hate crimes were originally reported under the category of anti-religious hate crimes.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 301 hate crimes motivated by bias against Muslims..

Anti-Muslim hate crimes were originally reported under the category of anti-religious hate crimes.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 174 hate crimes against Christians and 184 other anti-religious offences.

Anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim hate crimes were originally also reported under this category and are presented separately.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 1,219 hate crimes based on sexual orientation, including 23 anti-heterosexual, and 118 hate crimes based on gender identity.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 88 hate crimes against people with disabilities.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 29 gender-based hate crimes.

As divided by type of crime:

Hate crimes recorded by police by type of crime

This category includes murders and non-negligent manslaughter.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category includes rape, aggravated and simple assaults.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category consists of cases of destruction, damage and vandalism.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category includes cases of theft, robbery, burglary and motor vehicle theft.

As divided by bias motivation:

As divided by bias motivation:

This category consists of cases of intimidation.

As divided by bias motivation:

This category includes crimes against society and other types.

As divided by bias motivation:

National developments

The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) approved the collection of hate crime data based on bias against Arabs. Law enforcement agencies began reporting on the following additional religious bias types: anti-Buddhist, anti-Eastern Orthodox (such as Greek, Ukrainian or Russian orthodox churches), anti-Hindu, anti-Jehovah’s Witness, anti-Mormon, bias against other Christian groups, and anti-Sikh. Furthermore, the Hate Crime Statistics Program began collecting race and ethnicity bias types under the combined category Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry, which includes the added type of bias against Arabs.

The Federal Webinars on Church Security were launched in early 2015: the initiative promotes inter-agency collaboration and addresses both prevention and effective responses to hate crimes. The initiative includes representatives from the Department of Justice, the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Education. Government representatives also met with civil society representatives. As a response to the vulnerability felt by African American churches and other churches and places of worship in the wake of the Charleston shootings, the webinar addressed a range of issues for ensuring the security of places of worship, including developing emergency operations plans, advance security measures, services offered by the DHS, training materials for staff and other resources.

Civil society information

Overview of incidents reported by civil society

Bias Motivation Attacks Against People Attacks Against Property
Violent Attacks Threats
Racism and xenophobia907
Anti-Semitism640409
Bias against Muslims181249
Bias against Christians and members of other religions0041
Total9112506
Grand Total609

Reports

Racism and xenophobia
  • The Bridge Initiative reported the murder of an Iranian-American man and eight physical assaults, including two that caused serious injuries and one that involved the use of a weapon. The victims of these assaults included Sikhs, people speaking languages other than English in public, and people of Asian and Middle Eastern background. The Bridge Initiative also reported three incidents of vandalism and two incidents of graffiti targeting foreigners.

  • The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) reported two incidents of graffiti.

Anti-Semitism
  • The Ephesus Initiative and the Kantor Center reported a robbery. The Ephesus Initiative  further reported six physical assaults targeting men visibly identifiable as Jewish; a robbery; two arson attacks one against a synagogue and another against several houses, two incidents of damage to property; the desecration of a grave; and 27 incidents of vandalism, most of which involved graffiti targeting synagogues or Jewish property.

  • The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) reported 56 incidents of physical assault, at least two of which were carried out by groups and two that involved the use of weapons; and 377 incidents of anti-Semitic graffiti, vandalism or damage to property.

  • The Kantor Center reported 80 incidents of anti-Semitic violence, threatening behaviour and vandalism.

Bias against Muslims
  • The Bridge Initiative reported two murders; 13 physical assaults, including two that caused serious injuries, two that involved the use of weapons, and one assault carried out by a group; nine incidents of threats; three arson attacks; nine incidents of damage to property; 14 incidents of anti-Muslim graffiti; and six incidents of the desecration of graves. The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) reported an incident of vandalism targeting an Islamic centre.

  • The Ephesus Initiativethe Bridge Initiative and the ORIW reported the attempted murder of a Muslim taxi driver. The Ephesus Initiative and the Bridge Initiative also reported a physical assault that caused serious injury to a Muslim woman wearing a headscarf. The Ephesus Initiative further reported three incidents of threats, five arson attacks, eight cases of vandalism against mosques, and three incidents of the desecration of mosques. The ORIW also reported an additional physical assault against a group of Muslim men praying in a park. 

Bias against Christians and members of other religions
  • The Ephesus Initiative reported four arson attacks; eight incidents of damage to property; 24 incidents of vandalism, most of which involved graffiti; and five incidents of the desecration of graves.

IGO information

Developments

Racism and xenophobia
  • Following its Universal Periodic Review (UPR), the United States authorities made the commitment to examine and respond to recommendations to continue to work towards ensuring that all hate crimes are effectively investigated and prosecuted, and to engage better with communities at risk of being victims of hate crimes.

ODIHR key observations

ODIHR observes that the United States has not reported information on sentenced hate crime cases to ODIHR.