United States of America
The United States regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. Its hate crime laws contain general penalty-enhancement provisions and substantive offences. The United States Hate Crime Statistics Act requires the collection and publication of hate crime data. The authorities responsible for data collection are the Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Hate crime data are published annually.
The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) approved the collection of hate crime data based on bias against Arabs. Law enforcement agencies began reporting on the following additional religious bias types: anti-Buddhist, anti-Eastern Orthodox (such as Greek, Ukrainian or Russian orthodox churches), anti-Hindu, anti-Jehovah’s Witness, anti-Mormon, bias against other Christian groups, and anti-Sikh. Furthermore, the Hate Crime Statistics Program began collecting race and ethnicity bias types under the combined category Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry, which includes the added type of bias against Arabs.
The Federal Webinars on Church Security were launched in early 2015: the initiative promotes inter-agency collaboration and addresses both prevention and effective responses to hate crimes. The initiative includes representatives from the Department of Justice, the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and the Department of Education. Government representatives also met with civil society representatives. As a response to the vulnerability felt by African American churches and other churches and places of worship in the wake of the Charleston shootings, the webinar addressed a range of issues for ensuring the security of places of worship, including developing emergency operations plans, advance security measures, services offered by the DHS, training materials for staff and other resources.
Incidents reported by civil society, international organizations and the Holy See
The Bridge Initiative reported the murder of an Iranian-American man and eight physical assaults, including two that caused serious injuries and one that involved the use of a weapon. The victims of these assaults included Sikhs, people speaking languages other than English in public, and people of Asian and Middle Eastern background. The Bridge Initiative also reported three incidents of vandalism and two incidents of graffiti targeting foreigners.read more ›
The Ephesus Initiative and the Kantor Center reported a robbery. The Ephesus Initiative further reported six physical assaults targeting men visibly identifiable as Jewish; a robbery; two arson attacks one against a synagogue and another against several houses, two incidents of damage to property; the desecration of a grave; and 27 incidents of vandalism, most of which involved graffiti targeting synagogues or Jewish property.read more ›
The Ephesus Initiative, the Bridge Initiative and the ORIW reported the attempted murder of a Muslim taxi driver. The Ephesus Initiative and the Bridge Initiative also reported a physical assault that caused serious injury to a Muslim woman wearing a headscarf. The Ephesus Initiative further reported three incidents of threats, five arson attacks, eight cases of vandalism against mosques, and three incidents of the desecration of mosques. The ORIW also reported an additional physical assault against a group of Muslim men praying in a park.read more ›
The Ephesus Initiative reported four arson attacks; eight incidents of damage to property; 24 incidents of vandalism, most of which involved graffiti; and five incidents of the desecration of graves.read more ›
Following its Universal Periodic Review (UPR), the United States authorities made the commitment to examine and respond to recommendations to continue to work towards ensuring that all hate crimes are effectively investigated and prosecuted, and to engage better with communities at risk of being victims of hate crimes.
ODIHR observes that the United States has not reported information on sentenced hate crime cases to ODIHR.