United Kingdom

The United Kingdom regularly reports hate crime data to ODIHR. The United Kingdom’s hate crime laws are a combination of general penalty-enhancement provisions and substantive offences. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, hate crime data are collected by the Association of Chief Police Officers, the Crown Prosecution Service and the Home Office. In Scotland, data are collected by the Procurator Fiscal. Police and prosecution data, which cover the reporting period from April to March of the following year, are regularly published. The United Kingdom conducts regular victimization surveys to measure unreported hate crimes.


Official country information

Year Hate crimes recorded by police Prosecuted Sentenced About these data
2015 62518 21300 13103
2014 52853 4872 549
2013 47986 19689 12353
2012 47676 19205 10794
2011 50688 19802 12651
Bias motivationType of crimeRecorded by policeProsecutedSentenced
Racism and xenophobiaUnspecified4941900
Bias against Muslims-237200
Bias against Christians and members of other religionsUnspecified105500
Bias based on sexual orientation and gender identityUnspecified825200
Bias against people with disabilities and other groupsUnspecified362900

Hate crimes recorded by police by bias motivation

Official figures recorded 49,419 racist hate crimes in England and Wales.

This figure includes crimes targeting groups defined by race, colour, nationality or ethnic or national origin, and Gypsy or Irish Travellers. This figure includes an unspecified number of anti-Semitic crimes, as well as crimes targeting Roma and Sinti.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 786 anti-Semitic hate crimes in England and Wales.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 2,372 crimes based on intolerance against Muslims in England and Wales.

Official figures recorded 1,055 crimes based on bias against religion in England and Wales.

This category includes 316 hate crimes targeting Christians, 61 targeting Sikhs, 46 targeting Hindus, and 26 against Jehovah's Witnesses.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 7,194 crimes based on bias against sexual orientation, and 858 crimes based on bias against transgender people in England and Wales.

As divided by type of crime:

Official figures recorded 3,629 crimes based on bias against people with disabilities in England and Wales.

As divided by type of crime:

Hate crimes recorded by police by type of crime

As divided by bias motivation:

National developments

A new guidance on hate crime was published by the College of Policing, which aims at helping police officers reduce the under-reporting of hate crimes. The guidance further recognized emerging challenges such as internet-based offences and improving police response to hate crime against people with disabilities.

The Welsh Assembly published its hate crime strategy, Tackling hate crimes and incidents: a framework for action, focusing on three objectives: prevention, supporting victims and improving multi-agency response.

The Office of the Mayor of London published a hate crime strategy for London. The strategy identifies a number of objectives for the period from 2014 to 2017, including disseminating hate crime resources for educational institutions; developing an awareness campaign in London; developing a smartphone app for reporting incidents; developing a third party telephone reporting mechanism across London to supplement already existing local mechanisms; co-operating with the Ministry of Justice to develop resources within the True Vision hate crime reporting information website that are specific to London; developing with the Metropolitan Police Service a map of London’s hate crime hotspots; improving the use of enhanced sentencing by judges in “hostility-based offences” by urging the Home Secretary to introduce new sentencing guidelines for hate crimes and the recording of enhanced sentences on the Police National Computer.  

Civil society information

Overview of incidents reported by civil society

Bias Motivation Attacks Against People Attacks Against Property
Violent Attacks Threats
Racism and xenophobia361110
Bias against Muslims964073
Bias against Christians and members of other religions101
Bias based on sexual orientation and gender identity240
Bias against people with disabilities and other groups110
Grand Total516


Racism and xenophobia

  • MEND reported 32 physical assaults, three of which were carried out by groups and which caused serious injuries, also including three assaults involving the use of weapons. Two of the assaults involved robbery and three also involved damage to property. These 32 physical assaults targeted four women and 11 assaults targeted taxi drivers. The victims were Asian, Indian, Egyptian, Algerian, Sudanese, Somali, Iranian, Turkish and Iraqi-Kurd. MEND also reported one attempted physical assault, one attempted robbery, ten incidents of threats, one arson attack, seven incidents of damage to property and two incidents of graffiti.
    read more ›


  • The Community Security Trust (CST) and the Kantor Centre reported 85 physical assaults, four of which caused serious injuries; and 65 incidents of damage to property, including 24 incidents that targeted personal property, six incidents targeting synagogues, one against a cemetery and five that involved the hacking of websites. The CST also reported 85 incidents of vandalism and graffiti on non-Jewish property.
    read more ›

Bias against Muslims

  • MEND and Tell MAMA reported the attempted murder of a woman wearing a headscarf, who was pushed in front of an incoming train in a subway station; ten physical assaults, including one which involved the use of an air-rifle and three targeting women; one threat; one arson attack against a mosque; the bombing of a Muslim cultural centre; one attempted arson attack; two incidents of damage to mosques; nine incidents of vandalism ,including eight with graffiti; and one incident of the desecration of Muslim graves.
    read more ›

Bias against Christians and members of other religions

  • The Observatory of Intolerance and Discrimination against Christians in Europe (OIDC) reported one physical assault and one incident of damage to a church
    read more ›

Bias based on sexual orientation and gender identity

  • Galop reported a physical assault carried out by a group in which a gay man was stabbed and suffered serious injuries; one robbery targeting a gay man, in which a baseball bat and knife were used by a group; and four incidents of threats, with victims including a transgender woman and a man with intellectual disability.
    read more ›

Bias against people with disabilities and other groups

  • Tell MAMA reported one physical assault in which a young boy with disabilities was assaulted on a bus, and one threat against a Turkish man that involved both anti-disability and anti-Muslim verbal abuse.
    read more ›

IGO information

Racism and xenophobia

  • In its "Concluding observations on the seventh periodic report of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland", the United Nations Human Rights Committee (HRC) recommended that the existing legislation and policy to counter hate crimes be effectively implemented, reporting improved, and that cases should be thoroughly investigated, with perpetrators prosecuted and appropriately sentenced.

    In its fifth report on the United Kingdom, the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) recommended that data be gathered where enhanced sentencing was applied; and to monitor cases where bias aggravation was invoked and then withdrawn during the plea bargain.

Key observation

ODIHR observes that the United Kingdom has met most OSCE commitments on hate crime data collection and reporting.