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Bias against other groups – Sex

Sex-based hate crimes are criminal offences motivated by bias against a person’s sex, which means that the offender selected her or his target based on the victim’s sex.

Hate crimes and incidents reported to ODIHR can be motivated by a single bias, in which the target was selected solely due to her or his sex, or by multiple biases, in which bias based on sex intersects with another protected characteristic, such as disability, ethnic origin, race or religion. A number of the incidents reported to ODIHR also include those committed with bias by association against women’s organizations, events and individuals.

The OSCE participating States have recognized the importance of addressing equality between men and women and committed themselves to endorse the OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality of 2004. Hate crimes committed by bias based on the victim's sex attack the core values enshrined in the Action Plan.

ODIHR has reported on sex-based hate crimes since 2013, based on official statistics on sex-based hate crimes submitted by some OSCE participating States. Efforts to form targeted policies to address sex-based hate crimes are hampered by under-reporting. For example, only six states reported on sex-based hate crimes in 2016. Furthermore, the majority of sex-based hate crime victims do not report their experiences, highlighting the challenge posed by under-recording. 



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