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Bias against other groups – Sex

Sex-based hate crimes are criminal offences motivated by bias against a person’s sex, which means that the offender selected her or his target based on the victim’s sex.

Hate crimes and incidents reported to ODIHR can be motivated by a single bias, in which the target was selected solely due to her or his sex, or by multiple biases, in which bias based on sex intersects with another protected characteristic, such as disability, ethnic origin, race or religion. A number of the incidents reported to ODIHR also include those committed with bias by association against women’s organizations, events and individuals.

The OSCE participating States have recognized the importance of addressing equality between men and women and committed themselves to endorse the OSCE Action Plan for the Promotion of Gender Equality of 2004. Hate crimes committed by bias based on the victim's sex attack the core values enshrined in the Action Plan.

ODIHR has reported on sex-based hate crimes since 2013, based on official statistics on sex-based hate crimes submitted by some OSCE participating States. Efforts to form targeted policies to address sex-based hate crimes are hampered by under-reporting. For example, only six states reported on sex-based hate crimes in 2016. Furthermore, the majority of sex-based hate crime victims do not report their experiences, highlighting the challenge posed by under-recording. 

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SELECT YEAR

International Reports

Albania

The United Nations Human Rights Council Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) published relevant recommendations in its "Report from the Thirty-third session: Compilation on Albania."

Austria

The United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) published relevant recommendations in its "Concluding observations on the ninth periodic report of Austria."

Estonia

The United Nations Human Rights Committee published relevant recommendations in its "Concluding observations on the fourth periodic report of Estonia."

Ireland

The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) published relevant recommendations in its "Fifth Report on Ireland."

Romania

The European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) published relevant recommendations in its "Fifth Report on Romania."