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Bias against other groups
OSCE participating States agreed in Copenhagen in 1990 that participating States should "guarantee to all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground". There is no consensus among participating States as to which groups should be specifically protected against hate crimes and which bias motivations should be monitored.
This section, therefore, reports on those bias motivations that are most frequently reported to ODIHR as being recorded by participating States, NGOs and/or IGOs – that is, information on incidents and crimes based on bias towards people based on their sexual orientation and gender identity, on the basis of disability, or on other bias.